Fiscal Year 2018-2019 should be implementing the new Nonprofit Financial Reporting and Accounting Standards. We are providing this simplified guide to assist your organization with this implementation. We can help you modify your accounting software to meet this requirements so just let us know how we can assist your organization.
In November 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) added a project to its agenda focusing on the financial reporting of not-for-profit (NFP) entities. The project has resulted in the issuance of Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2016-14, Not-for-Profit Entities (Topic 958): Presentation of Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Entities. The update strives to improve how a NFP organization classifies its net assets and provides information in its financial statements and notes about its financial performance, cash flows and liquidity. We have summarized the full 270-page standard into this brief guide which outlines the primary changes to the financial statements of not-for-profit organizations.
Net Asset Classes
- Replaces the current three net asset classes with the following two:
- Net assets with donor restrictions
- Net assets without donor restrictions
- Removes hardline distinction between temporary and permanent restrictions
- Enhances disclosure requirements:
- Amounts and purposes of board-designated net assets
- How restrictions affect the use of resources
In order to implement the new changes, you will need to modify your financial report formats and chart of accounts to insure your internal financial reports are modified for the new financial reporting requirements. You will need to determine appropriate level of disaggregation of the net assets for Statement of Financial Position, Statement of Activities, and footnote disclosures.
What to know: Previously, not-for-profit organizations had three distinct net asset classifications: unrestricted, temporarily restricted, and permanently restricted. ASU 2016-14 combines temporarily restricted and permanently restricted net assets into “net assets with donor restrictions” and renames unrestricted net assets as “net assets without donor restrictions.” This reflects the fact that permanently restricted net assets can be spent as long as the organization acts prudently.
|Previously reported||New reporting|
|Unrestricted||Net assets without donor restrictions|
|Temporarily restricted Permanently restricted||Net assets with donor restrictions|
Organizations should consider reformatting their internal financial statements to comply with the two net asset classifications, which is not a significant change. However, these two net asset classes are required at a minimum; further disaggregation of net assets can be disclosed in the footnotes. Net assets with time or purpose restrictions could be segregated from those held in perpetuity (such as an endowment) if this is beneficial to the users of the financial statements.
Not-for-profit organizations are required to disclose board- designated net assets either on the face of the financial statements or in the notes to the financial statements. Board-designated net assets are net assets without donor restrictions that are subject to self-imposed limits by action of the governing board. They may be earmarked for a specific purpose, for example, and they can be undesignated at the board’s discretion.
Smaller organizations may need to adopt new policies and practices for tracking board-designated net assets. They should identify all board-designated net assets and understand the purpose of such funds for disclosure purposes. Funds unnecessarily designated may need to be undesignated.
- Presents deficits relative to original gift amounts of donor-restricted within the donor-imposed restrictions class of net assets
- Enhances disclosure requirements:
- Governing board’s policy related to appropriations from such funds
- Any action taken during the period related to such funds
- Original gift amount or level otherwise required to be maintained by the donor or law
- Amount of the underwater endowments in the aggregate
In order to implement the changes, you will need to recast your note to conform to the new two net asset categories. Remember that the underwater portion of endowments is now presented entirely in net assets with donor restrictions. The investment return is now presented net of external and direct internal investment expenses, and does not require a separate break-out of the components of investment return.
Organizations should have an investment policy that clearly complies with UPMIFA and addresses how management, within prudence, interprets spending funds from endowments. Organizations should take advantage of the opportunity to communicate their stories and decision-making processes in this area of the disclosures.
Expiration of Restrictions – Long-lived Assets
- Requires use of the “placed-in-service approach” for determination of when restrictions expire
- No longer allows the recognition of the expiration of restrictions over the asset’s useful life
Statement of Cash Flows
- May continue to elect either the direct or indirect method
- When using the direct method, no longer requires the reconciliation of changes in net assets to cash flows from operating activities
The statement of cash flows update does not change the underlying transactions in the statement. In deciding whether to switch from the indirect to the direct method, organizations should consider the needs of their financial statement users. The direct method of presenting the statement of cash flows is more intuitive and generally more understandable, as it provides more visibility into the sources and uses of the organization’s funds. In ASU 2016-14, FASB noted that many organizations that implemented the direct method found that it was not that difficult or costly, particularly after the first year. If an organization switches to the direct method, in the year of adoption it should build a good template for use in future years.
Liquidity and Availability of Resources
- Requires disclosure of qualitative information about how liquid resources are managed
- Requires disclosure of quantitative information related to availability of financial assets to meet cash needs for general expenditures within one year, including impact of the following on financial assets:
- Nature of the financial assets
- External limits by donors, grantors, laws and contracts
- Internal limits by the governing board
In order to implement the changes, you will need identify all financial assets, and any limitations on availability for expenditure in the next 12 months. You will need to determine the format to present the required quantitative disclosure. You can either display amounts of financial assets then adjustments to arrive at an available for expenditures amount or you can display only the net amounts available for expenditure. You could determine whether presenting a classified statement of financial position could enhance or simplify the quantitative disclosure requirements considering other effects elsewhere in the financial statements and related notes. You might want to develop a formal policy for managing the organization’s liquidity needs which might be disclosed in the qualitative portion of the note disclosure.
The use of liquidity ratios such as days of unrestricted cash available can be an important tool in monitoring cash reserves. Management should have a realistic forecast of revenues, expenses, and capital expenditures. If a negative result is anticipated, management should implement actions such as capital campaigns, key donor requests, or expense by department analysis to reduce costs. Areas that aren’t strategic to the entity’s mission can be analyzed to determine if they are an effective use of the organization’s resources. In addition, the organization should monitor a cash flow forecast regularly with the help of all supervisors. Organizations should also consider whether alternate sources of funds could be obtained through a fundraising campaign or a line of credit to improve liquidity.
- Requires external and direct internal investment expenses to be net against investment returns
- Removes requirement to disclose amount of investment expenses net against investment returns
- Clarifies what activities constitute direct internal investing activities:
- Salaries and related expenses of staff responsible for the development and execution of investment strategy
- Allocable costs associated with internal investment management and supervising, selecting, and monitoring of external investment management firms
- Permits separate, appropriately labeled line items on the statement of activities for net investment return managed differently or derived from different sources
- Eliminates the requirement to present investment return components for changes in endowment net assets
Reporting of Expenses
- Requires all NFPs to report expenses by nature
- Retains requirement to report expenses by function
- Requires expense analysis by nature and function to be presented in one location, in either:
- The statement of activities
- A separate statement of expenses (similar to the statement of functional expenses)
- A schedule in the notes
- Enhances disclosures related to methods used to allocate costs among functions
- Updates descriptions of management and general activities
In order to implement the changes, you will need to determine where and how to present all expenses by nature and function in one place which might a in the statement of functional expense, statement of activities, or a note to the financial statements. You will need to evaluate whether your current accounting system will support preparation of this required information. You will need to develop formal allocation methodologies to be used to allocate expenses among program and supporting services categories. You will need to draft note disclosure of the methods utilized in the expense allocation process. It might be time to put together a formal cost allocation plan.
ASU 2016-14 includes clarifying guidance on the definition of management and general activities to assist in better depicting costs that can (or cannot) be allocated among program or support functions. Supporting activities are clarified to mean those “that are not directly identifiable with one or more program, fundraising, or membership development activities.” The update does not change the definition of program expense or supporting service.
Organizations should take the opportunity to revisit their existing functional allocation methodologies and substantiate assumptions used. Research time may be needed to properly allocate items such as employee time between program and supporting activities. Inconsistencies in allocation methods should be identified, and a line-by-line analysis of accounts may be needed. Certain areas such as information technology should be analyzed for direct supervision or direct conduct of program activities.
Organizations should also consider revising their chart of accounts to easily identify natural expenses. Consider whether accounts with programmatic descriptions, such as “Local and Global Outreach,” “Missionary Support,” “Easter Services,” or “Adult and Youth Programs,” should be eliminated and replaced with accounts that have natural expense descriptions for the related costs.
Effective Date and Transition
- Annual financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after Dec. 15, 2017
- Early application is permitted
- Requires adoption on retrospective basis for all years presented, except for:
- Analysis of expenses by nature and function
- Disclosures related to liquidity and availability of resources
Don’t forget to take advantage of our free resource. “Understanding. Preparing. Implementing. FASB ASU 2016-14 reporting requirements for Not-for-Profit Organizations“